writer | dissident
as a child, Kalynets read banned literature in the Ukrainian language, and watched the mass deportations of Ukrainians by the communists. he graduated from Lviv University in 1961. he began writing in the 1950s, and his first book of poetry was published in 1966. because of censorship, the rest of his works were published in the West. In March 1971, the 24th Congress of the Communist Party of Ukraine denounced Kalynets' poetry as "reprehensible", made worse by the fact that he allowed his work to be published in the West. he was then indicted on the grounds that he "issues a veiled appeal to struggle against the Soviet government", "calls for a revival of the Uniate Church", "covertly presents the idea that the Ukrainian people is oppressed by the Soviet government", and "articulates a nationalist ideology, as well as nostalgia for the past and for an independent state". on 11 August 1972, he was arrested, and on 15 November 1972, he was convicted for anti-Soviet activities by a closed court and sentenced to six years in labour camps and three years in exile. his wife, Iryna, was also arrested in January 1972. while in prison, he took part in the resistance movement. he was involved with hunger strikes, the writing of appeals and the writing of chronicles of the two camps.